Konica Minolta



Photovoltaic Reference PV Cells

Reference photovoltaic (PV) cells developed in collaboration
with Japan's National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science
and Technology (AIST) utilizing Konica Minolta's advanced
optical filter technology to provide high-accuracy measurement
for adjusting the intensity of solar simulators used for evaluation
of solar cells including tandem cells.



Spectral mismatch reduced to less than 1%

By employing the high-accuracy optical filter technology cultivated for our color-measuring instruments, we have succeeded in greatly reducing spectral mismatch, which is a major problem with conventional cells. Spectral mismatch can be reduced to 1% or less, even when evaluating solar cell performance using JIS C-8942 Class C solar simulators.


Relative spectral sensitivity


For 2-junction solar cells
(a-Si: Top layer)


For 2-junction solar cells
(μc-Si: Bottom layer)


For 3-junction solar cells
(Top layer)


For 3-junction solar cells
(Middle layer)


For 3-junction solar cells
(Bottom layer)


For crystalline solar cells


For dye-sensitized
(N719) solar cells


Improved reflection characteristics


Error in short-circuit current (Isc) due to multiple reflection is greatly reduced. Improvements in the optical structure suppress multiple reflection and reduce the 1.3% error of conventional products to 0.0%.


Conventional product






Improved durability against solar simulator light

Standard reference Cells using optical filters typically have low durability against exposure to solar simulator light. This causes changes in characteristics due to the effects of light exposure (solarization) making accurate measurements difficult. AK Series Reference Cells have a high durability against exposure to light, greatly reducing solarization and ensuring stability.


Maintenance of standard test condition of 25°C

A PT-100 temperature sensor is integrated into the package of the AK-Series, and can be connected to a temperature-controlled stage for reference PV cells to easily achieve and maintain the standard test condition (STC) of 25°C.


National institute calibration possible

The AK-Series can be calibrated as a secondary reference with Traceability System of AIST (Japan's National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology).